The term infertility is generally used when a couple fail to conceive after they have tried to have a baby for about a year. Under normal circumstances, 80% of women who have regular sex without using contraception will get pregnant in the first year of trying. However, age, lifestyle and biological factors can lower the chances of conceiving. Since fertility normally declines with age, fertility evaluation is recommended for couples over thirty five years who have not conceived after six months of regular unprotected sex. Couples under thirty five should be given medical counseling if they have not conceived after one year of trying. Sometimes, simple advice such as having regular intercourse will enable them to overcome the problem.

Historically, infertility has been largely attributed to the female. However, in reality, it affects men and women almost equally. Female-related factors account for 40% of infertility, with male-related causes accounting to another 40%. A combination of male and female-related factors account for about 10% of infertility, while the remaining 10% is due to unexplained causes. Therefore, it is important to discuss treatment with both partners so that they will understand the problems of their infertility.